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yiwcanwnmakhwngkhunsu isxxn aela aephndinxisraexl aemprimankhwamphyayamthikhwrichipephuxepahmayniepnhwkhxphiphath khwamhwngaelakhwamprarthnakhxngyiwthixasyxyunxkmatuphumiepnaeknsakhykhxngrabbkhwamechuxkhxngyiw hlngyiwthukkhbilxxkcaksepninpi 1492 bangchumchntngthinthanxyuinpaelsitn rahwangkhriststwrrsthi 16 chumchnyiwtngrkrakinsinkhrskdisiththi idaek eyrusaelm ithebiyeriys hibrxnaelasaefd aelainpi 1697 aerbibeyhuda hachasid Yehuda Hachasid naklumyiw 1 500 khnipeyrusaelm inkhrunghlngkhxngkhriststwrrsthi 18 phukhdkhanlththihasidimchawyuorptawnxxk thieriyk epruchim Perushim tngthinthaninpaelsitn karyaythinkhxngyiwsmyihmralxkaerkippaelsitninpkkhrxngkhxngxxtotmn thieriyk xaliyakhrngaerk First Aliyah erimkhuninpi 1881 emuxyiwhniophkrminyuorptawnxxk aemmikhbwnkarisxxnistaelw nkhnngsuxphimphchawxxsetriy hngkari thioxdxr ehis Theodor Herzl idrbkhwamchxbwaepnphukxtngkhbwnkarkaremuxngisxxnist epnkhbwnkarsungmungsthapnarthyiwinaephndinxisraexl channcungesnxthangxxkaekpyhachawyiwinrthyuorp rwmkbepahmayaelakhwamsaerckhxngokhrngkarradbchatixuninewlann inpi 1896 ehiscdphimphhnngsux rthyiw esnxwisythsnrthyiwinxnakht pitxmaekhaepnprathansphaisxxnistkhrngthihnung xaliyakhrngthisxng pi 1904 14 erimkhunhlngophkrmkhichienf Kishinev pogrom miyiwpraman 40 000 khntngthinthaninpaelsitn aemekuxbkhrungxxkcakthinninthisud phuekhaemuxngthngsxngralxkaerkepnyiwxxrthxdxksesiyswnihy aemxaliyakhrngthisxngmiklumsngkhmniymsungsthapnakhbwnkarkhibbuts kibbutz xyudwy rahwangsngkhramolkkhrngthihnung rthmntriwakarkrathrwngkartangpraethsbrietn xarethxr aeblefxr Arthur Balfour sngptiyyaaeblefxrpi 1917 aekbarxnrxthsichld wlethxr rxthsichld barxnthi 2 aehngrxthsichld phunachumchnyiwbrietn sungaethlngwabrietntngicsthapna banchati khxngyiwinxantipaelsitn phithioxneyrusaelmihxyuinkarpkkhrxngkhxngbrietnhlngsngkhramolkkhrngthihnung inpi 1918 licnyiw klumsungprakxbdwyxasasmkhrisxxnistepnhlk snbsnunkarphichitpaelsitnkhxngbrietn karkhdkhankarpkkhrxngkhxngbrietnaelakarekhaemuxngkhxngyiwnaipsuehtuclaclinpaelsitnpi 1920 aelakarsthapnathharxasasmkhryiwthieriyk hakhxnah Haganah sungtxmaaeykxxkmaepnklumkungthharxxkn Irgan aelaelhi Lehi inpi 1922 snnibatchatiihxantiehnuxpaelsitnaekbrietnphayitenguxnikhsungrwmptiyyaaeblefxraelakhamnaekyiw aelabthbyytikhlayknwadwychawpaelsitnechuxsayxahrb prachakrkhxngphunthiinewlannepnxahrbaelamuslimepnhlk odymiyiwkhidepnpramanrxyla 11 aelakhristsasnikchnechuxsayxahrbpramanrxyla 9 5 khxngprachakr xaliyakhrngthisam 1919 23 aelakhrngthisi 1924 29 nachawyiwxik 100 000 khnmayngpaelsitn khwamrungeruxngkhxnglththinasiaelakarebiydebiynyiwthiephimkhuninthwipyuorpkhristthswrrs 1930 naipsuxaliyakhrngthiha odymikarihlbakhxngchawyiwkwa 250 000 khn sungepnsaehtuhlkkhxngkbtxahrbpi 1936 39 rahwangnnthangkarxantibritichrwmkbthharxasasmkhrxakhxnahaelaxxknkhaxahrb 5 032 khnaelathaihmiphubadecb 14 760 khn thaihprachakrxahrbpaelsitnchayphuihykwarxyla 10 thukkha idrbbadecb thukcakhukhruxthukenreths 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sungtngxyuthiorngaermkhingdawidineyrusaelm miphuesiychiwithlaysychatirwm 91 khn aelaidrbbadecbxik 46 khn orngaermnnyngepnthitngkhxngsankelkhathikarrthbalpaelsitnaelasanknganihykhxngkxngthphbrietninpaelsitnaelathransecxraedn thiaerkkarocmtiniidrbkhwamehnchxbcakhakhxnah ekhaicwaehtuniepnkartxbotptibtikarxakatha kartiochbchwyepnwngkwangrwmthngtxhnwynganyiw sungthangkarbritichepnphulngmux aelaepnkhrngthimiphuesiychiwitmakthisudtxchawbritichrahwangsmyxanti inpi 1947 rthbalbritichprakaswacathxntwxxkcakpaelsitn odyaethlngwaimsamarthbrrluwithirangbpyhathithngxahrbaelayiwyxmrb wnthi 15 phvsphakhm 1947 smchchaihyaehngshprachachatithiephingtngidkhxsrupwaihtngkhnakrrmkarphiessaehngshprachachatiwadwypaelsitn ephuxetriymraynganwadwypyhapaelsitnsahrbkhxphicarnainsmyprachumsamyaehngsmchcha inrayngankhxngkhnakrrmkar lngwnthi 3 knyayn 1947 thungsmchchaihy khnakrrmkar swnihyinbththi 6 esnxaephnaethnthixantipaelsitndwy rthxahrbexkrach rthyiwexkrach aelankhreyrusaelm odyxyanghlngihxyuphayitrabbphawathrstirahwangpraeths wnthi 29 phvscikayn smchchaihy rbkhxmtithi 181 II aenanakarmimtiehnchxbaelakarnaipptibtisungaephnkaraebngphrxmshphaphesrsthkic aephnthiaenbkbkhxmtimikhwamsakhythiesnxodykhnakrrmkar swnihyinraynganwnthi 3 knyayn hnwynganyiwsungepnphuaethnchumchnyiwthiidrbkarrbrxng yxmrbaephnni faysnnibatxahrbaelakhnakrrmkarsungxahrbpaelsitnptiesth aelabngchiwacaptiesthaephnaebngswnid wnrungkhun khux 1 thnwakhm 1947 khnakrrmkarsungxahrbprakaskarhyudnganprathwngsamwn aelaaekngxahrberimocmtiepahmayyiw thiaerkyiwepnfaytngrbemuxsngkhramklangemuxngpathu aetintneduxnemsayn 1948 epliynepnfaybuk esrsthkicpaelsitnxahrblmslayaelachawxahrbpaelsitnhlbhnihruxthukkhbil 250 000 khn karpkthnghmukepnkarsinsudsngkhramxahrb xisraexl kh s 1948 wnthi 14 phvsphakhm 1948 hnungwnkxnxantibritichhmdxayu edwid ebnkueriyn hwhnahnwynganyiw prakas karsthapnarthyiwinaephndinxisraexl eriyk rthxisraexl karphadphingediywinkhxkhwamkhxngprakas thungekhtaednkhxngrthihmkhuxkarichkhawaaephndinxisraexl Eretz Israel wnrungkhun kxngthphpraethsxahrbsipraeths khux xiyipt sieriy thranscxraednaelaxirk yatraekhaxditpaelsitninxantibrietn epidchaksngkhramxahrb xisraexl kh s 1948 thharsmthbcakpraethseyemn omrxkok saxudixaraebiyaelasudanekharwmsngkhramdwy khwammunghmaypraktkhxngkarbukkhrxngkhuxkarpxngknkarthsapnarthyiwtngaeterimbngkhbaelaphunaxahrbbangkhnphudthungkarphlkdnyiwtkthael ebnni mxrriswa yiwrusukwakxngthphxahrbthikalngbukkhrxngmungkhalangbangyiw snnibatxahrbaethlngwakarbukkhrxngepnipephuxfunfukdhmayaelakhwamsngberiybrxyaelapxngknkarnxngeluxdephimxik hlngkarsurbnanhnungpi mikarprakaskarhyudyingaelamikarsthapnaphrmaednchwkhraw eriyk esnekhiyw Green Line cxraednphnwkdinaednthieriyk ewstaebngk rwmthngeyrusaelmtawnxxk aelaxiyiptkhwbkhumchnwnkasa shprachachatipramanwachawpaelsitnkwa 700 000 khnthukkhbilhruxhlbhnicakkalngxisraexlthikalngrukkhubrahwangkhwamkhdaeyngnn sungphasaxarbikeriyk nkhba hayna swn 156 000 khnyngxyuaelaklayepnphlemuxngxisraexlechuxsayxahrb piaerk khxngrthxisraexl praethsxisraexlidrbekhaepnsmachikshprachachatidwykhaaennesiyngfaykhangmakemuxwnthi 11 phvsphakhm 1949 thngxisraexlaelacxraednsnickhwamtklngsntiphaphxyangcringic aetbrietnkhdkhwangkhwamphyayamkhxngcxraednephuxeliyngkhwamesiyhaytxphlpraoychnkhxngbrietninxiyipt inpiaerk khxngrth khbwnkarisxxnistelebxr sungminaykrthmntriedwid ebnkueriynepnphuna khrxbngakaremuxngxisraexl khibbutsim hruxchumchnrabbnarwm mibthbathsakhyinkarsthapnarthihm karekhaemuxngxisraexlrahwangplaykhristthswrrs 1940 aelatnkhristthswrrs 1950 idrbkarsnbsnuncakkrathrwngkarekhaemuxngxisraexlaelasthabnkarekhaemuxngmichxbdwykdhmaythiexkchnsnbsnun thngsxngklumxanwykhwamsadwkaeklxcistikskarekhaemuxngepnpracaechn karcdhakarkhnsng aetfayhlngekharwminptibtikarlbinhlaypraeths odyechphaaxyangyingintawnxxkklangaelayuorptawnxxk thisungchiwitchawyiwechuxwatkxyuinxntrayaelakarxxkcakthiehlannyak mikaryubsthabnkarekhaemuxngmichxbdwykdhmayinpi 1953 karekhaemuxngepniptamaephnhnunglan phuekhaemuxngmiehtuphlhlakhlay bangmikhwamechuxaebbisxxnisthruxmaephraakhamnsahrbchiwitthidikwanxisraexl aetbangyayephuxhnikarebiydebiynhruxthukkhbil karihlbakhxngphurxdchiwitcakhxolkhxstaelayiwcakpraethsxahrbaelamuslimekhapraethsxisraexlrahwangsampiaerkephimcanwnyiwcak 700 000 khnepn 1 4 lankhn phayinpi 1958 prachakrxisraexlephimkhunepn 2 lankhn rahwangpi 1948 aela 1970 miphuliphychawyiwpraman 1 150 000 khnyaythinekhapraethsxisraexl phuekhaemuxngihmbangswnmaepnphuliphyodyimmithrphysintidtwaelakahndihankinkhaychwkhraweriyk maxabarxt ma abarot phayinpi 1952 mikwa 200 000 khnxasyxyuinnkhretnthehlani yiwthimacakthwipyuorpmkidrbkarptibtidikwayiwcakpraethstawnxxkklangaelaaexfrikaehnux hnwyekhhathisngwniwsahrbyiwklumhlkmkidrbkahndihmaekyiwklumaerk sngphlihyiwcakdinaednxahrbodythwipxasyxyuinkhayepliynphannankwa khwamtungekhriydsungphthnakhunrahwangsxngklumcakkareluxkptibtidngklawdaeninmathungthukwnni rahwangchwngni xahar ekhruxngnunghmaelaefxrniecxrcaepntxngidrbkarpnswn sungeriyk yukhrdekhmkhd khwamcaepnephuxrangbwikvtkarnnaihebnkueriynlngnamkhwamtklngkhaptikrrmkbpraethseyxrmnitawntk thaihekidkarprathwngkhnadihykhxngyiwsungokrthaekhnkbaenwkhidthiwaxisraexlsamarthrangbkhatxbaethnepnengincakhxolkhxst rahwangkhristthswrrs 1950 praethsxisraexlthukefdayinpaelsitn Palestinian fedayeen ocmtibxykhrng odymiepahmaytxphleruxnekuxbthnghmd swnihycakchnwnkasathixiyiptyudkhrxng naihekidkartiochbchwyottxb inpi 1956 brietnihyaelafrngessmungekhakhwbkhumkhlxngsuexsxikkhrng sungxiyiptoxnepnkhxngrth karpidlxmkhlxngsuexsaelachxngaekhbtiranmiihxisraexlkhnsngthangerux rwmkbprimankarocmtikhxngefdayintxprachakrphakhitkhxngxisraexlthiephimkhun aelathxyaethlngrayaerngaelakhukkhamkhxngxahrblasud thaihxisraexlocmtixiyipt xisraexlekhaepnphnthmitrlbkbbrietnihyaelafrngess aelasamarthexachnaidkhabsmuthrisnay aetthukshprachachatikddnihthxnkalngephuxaelkkbkarrbpraknsiththikaredineruxkhxngxisraexlinthaelaedngodythangchxngaekhbtiranaelakhlxng sngkhramnn sungeriyk wikvtkarnkhlxngsuexs thaihldkaraethrksumchayaednxisraexlldlngxyangsakhy inkhnkhristthswrrs 1960 xisraexlcbtwxachyakrsngkhramnasi xdxlf ixchmnninpraethsxarecntinaaelanatwmaitswninxisraexl karitswnnnmiphlkrathbihyhlwngtxkhwamtrahnksatharnakhxnghxolkhxst ixchmnnyngepnphuediywthithukpraharchiwitinpraethsxisraexlcakkhaphiphaksakhxngsalphleruxnxisraexlcnthungpccubn dinaednthixisraexlthuxkhrxng kxnsngkhramhkwn hlngsngkhram khabsmuthrisnaykhunihxiyiptinpi 1982 nbaetpi 1964 praethsxahrbthikngwltxaephnkhxngxisraexlinkarpnnacakaemnacxraednsuthirabchayfng phyayamhnehtnnaephuxtdthrphyakrnakhxngxisraexl ywyukhwamtungekhriydrahwangxisraexlfayhnung aelasieriyaelaelbanxnxikfayhnung nkchatiniymxahrbsungmiprathanathibdixiyipt yamal xbdunnasir epnphuna ptiesththicarbrxngxisraexlaelaeriykrxngihthalaylangxisraexl phayinpi 1966 khwamsmphnthxahrb xisraexlesuxmlngthungkhnthimikaryuththcringcngrahwangkalngxisraexlaelaxahrb ineduxnphvsphakhm 1967 xiyiptprachumkxngthphiklchayaednkbxisraexl khbilkalngrksasntiphaphshprachachatisungpracaxyuinkhabsmuthrisnaytngaetpi 1957 aelaskdkarekhathungthaelaedngkhxngxisraexl rthxahrbxunradmkalngechnkn xisraexlyawakarkrathaehlaniepnehtuaehngsngkhram aelainwnthi 5 mithunayn epidchakkarocmtikxntxxiyipt cxraedn sieriyaelaxirktxbsnxngaelaocmtixisraexl insngkhramhkwn xisraexlphichitcxraednaelayudewstaebngk phichitxiyiptaelayudchnwnkasaaelakhabsmuthrisnay aelaphichitsieriyaelayudthirabsungokln khxbekhtkhxngeyrusaelmkhyayihykhun rwmeyrusaelmtawnxxk aelaesnekhiywpi 1949 klayepnekhtaednbriharrachkaraephndinrahwangxisraexlaeladinaednyudkhrxng nbaetsngkhrampi 1967 aelakhxmti samim khxngsnnibatxahrb rahwangsngkhramkarbnthxnkalngpi 1967 1970 xisraexlephchiykarocmticakxiyiptinisnay cakklumpaelsitnthimungepachawxisraexlindinaednyudkhrxng indinaednxisraexl aelathwolk klumpaelsitnaelaxahrbthisakhythisudkhux xngkhkarpldplxypaelsitn PLO sungsthapnainpi 1964 sungedimmungmnephux kartxsudwyxawuthwaepnthangediywinkarpldplxybanekid inplaykhristthswrrs 1960 aelatnkhristthswrrs 1970 klumpaelsitnepidchakkarocmtiepnralxk txepahmayxisraexlaelayiwthwolk rwmthngkarsngharhmunkkilaxisraexlinoxlimpikvdurxn 1972 inmiwnik rthbalxisraexltxbotdwykarthphlxbkhatxphuxyuebuxnghlngkarsngharhmu karthingraebidthangxakasaelakartiochbchwytxsanknganihy PLO inpraethselbanxn wnthi 6 tulakhm 1973 rahwangthiyiwkalngcd sungepnethskalsakhythisudkhxngyiw kxngthphxiyiptaelasieriyepidchakkarocmtixyangcuocmtxkalngxisraexlinkhabsmuthrisnayaelathirabsungokln sungepidchaksngkhramymkhippur sngkhramyutiinwnthi 25 tulakhmodyxisraexlsamarthphlkdnkalngxiyiptaelasieriyaetsuyesiythharkwa 2 500 nayinsngkhramthikhrachiwit 10 000 35 000 khninewlapraman 20 wn karsxbswnphayinthuxwarthbalphnkhwamrbphidchxbsahrbkhwamlmehlwthngkxnhnaaelarahwangsngkhram aetsatharnabibbngkhbihnaykrthmntrioklda emxirlaxxk ineduxnkrkdakhm 1976 miekhruxngbinodysarhnungthukkxngocrpaelsitncirahwangbincakxisraexlippraethsfrngess aelalngcxdthiexnethbeb Entebbe praethsxuknda khxmmanodxisraexldaeninptibtikarsungsamarthchwyehluxtwpraknchawxisraexlidsaerc 102 khncak 106 khn khwamkhdaeyngephimetimaelakrabwnkarsntiphaph kareluxktngkhensestpi 1977 epncudphlikphnsakhyinprawtisastrkaremuxngkhxngxisraexlemuxphrrkhlikhudkhxngemnaehm ebkinchnaphrrkhaerngngan inpiediywkn prathanathibdixiyipt xnwr xssadat edinthangippraethsxisraexlaelaprasrytxkhensestsungthuxepnkarrbrxngxisraexlkhxngpramukhaehngrthxahrbkhrngaerk inxiksxngpitxma sadadaelaebkinlngnam pi 1978 aelasnthisyyasntiphaphxisraexl xiyipt pi 1979 xisraexlyxmthxnkalngcakkhabsmuthrisnayaelatklngekhasukarecrcaeruxngxttantikhxngchawpaelsitninewstaebngkaelachnwnkasa wnthi 11 minakhm 1978 kxngocr PLO tiochbchwycakpraethselbanxnnaipsukarsngharhmuthnnchayfng xisraexltxbotodykarepidchakbukkhrxngphakhitkhxngelbanxnephuxthalaythan PLO thixyuthangitkhxngaemnalitani nkrbkhxng PLO swnihythxnkalng aetxisraexlsamarthekhakhwbkhumphakhitkhxngelbanxncnkrathngkalngkhxngshprachachatiaelakxngthphelbanxnyudkhun imnan PLO ichnoybayocmtixisraexlxikkhrng inimkipithdma PLO aethrksumphakhitkhxngelbanxnaelayingpunihyprapraykhamchayaedn fayxisraexldaeninkarocmtitxbotthngthangxakasaelathangbkhlaykhrng khnaediywkn rthbalebkincdsingcungicaekchawxisraexlihtngthinthaninewstaebngk thaihephimkhwamtungekhriydkbchawpaelsitninphunthi mikarphankdhmayhlkphunthan eyrusaelm emuxnghlwngkhxngxisraexl inpi 1980 sungbangkhnechuxwayunynkarphnwkeyrusaelmkhxngxisraexlinpi 1967 dwykvsdikakhxngrthbal aelacudchnwnkrniphiphathrahwangpraethsehnuxsthanphaphkhxngnkhr immikdhmayxisraexlchbbidniyamdinaednxisraexlaelaimmirthbyytiidecaacngrwmeyrusaelmtawnxxkineyrusaelmdwy cudyunkhxngrthsmachikshprachachatimikarsathxninkhxmtihlaykhxmtisungprakaswakarkrathakhxngxisraexlinkartngthinthanphlemuxnginewstaebngk aelakahndkdhmayaelakarbriharrachkaraephndintxeyrusaelmtawnxxk michxbdwykdhmayaelaimmiphlsmburn inpi 1981 xisraexlphnwkthirabsungokln aemkarphnwknnimidrbkarrbrxngkhxngnanachati khwamhlakhlaykhxngprachakrkhxngxisraexlephimkhuninkhristthswrrs 1980 thung 1990 yiwexthioxepiyhlayralxkekhaemuxngxisraexltngaetkhristthswrrs 1980 swnrahwangpi 1990 aela 1994 karekhaemuxngcakrthhlngosewiytephimprachakrkhxngxisraexlrxyla 12 wnthi 7 mithunayn 1981 kxngthphxakasxisraexlthalayekhruxngptikrnniwekhliyraehngediywkhxngxirkthikalngxyurahwangkxsrangnxkkrungaebkaeddephuxybyngokhrngkarxawuthniwekhliyrkhxngxirk ihhlngkarocmtikhxng PLO hlaykhrnginpi 1982 praethsxisraexlcungbukkhrxngelbanxninpiediywknephuxthalaythansung PLO ichepidchakocmtiaelayingkhipnawuthisphakhehnuxkhxngxisraexl inkarsurbhkwnaerk fayxisraexlthalaykalngthharkhxng PLO inpraethselbanxnaelasamarthphichitkxngthphsieriyidxyangeddkhad karsxbswnkhxngrthbalxisraexl khnakrrmkarkhahan txmasrupwaebkin charxnaelanayphlxisraexlhlaynaymiswnrbphidchxbodyxxmsahrbkarsngharhmuthichabraaelachatila inpi 1985 praethsxisraexltxbotkarocmtikxkarraykhxngpaelsitninisprsodykarthingraebidsanknganihykhxng PLO inpraethstuniesiy xisraexlthxnkalngcakpraethselbanxnepnswnihyinpi 1986 aetyngkhngekhtknchnbriewnchayaedninphakhitkhxngelbanxncnthungpi 2000 sungkalngxisraexlkhdaeyngkbhisbullxh xintifadakhrngaerk sungepnkarkxkarkaeribkhxngpaelsitntxkarpkkhrxngkhxngxisraexl pathukhuninpi 1987 odymikaredinkhbwnaelakhwamrunaernghlayralxkekidkhuninekhtewstaebngkaelakasathithukyudkhrxng inchwnghkpithdma xintifadamikarrcdraebiybmakkhunaelarwmexamatrkarthangesrsthkicaelawthnthrrmthimungkhdkhwangkaryudkhrxngkhxngxisraexl miphuthukkhainkhwamrunaerngdngklawkwa 1 000 khn rahwangsngkhramxawepxresiypi 1991 PLO snbsnunsddm husesnaelakarocmtidwykhipnawuthskttxxisraexl aemsatharnaokrthaekhn xisraexlrbfngkharxngkhxngshrthihlaewnkarocmtiottxbaelaimekharwminsngkhramnn inpi 1992 yitshk rabinepnnaykrthmntrihlngkareluxktngsungphrrkhkhxngekhaeriykrxngihpranipranxmkbephuxnbankhxngxisraexl pitxma chiomn epersphuaethnfayxisraexl aelaphuaethnfay PLO lngnam sungihxngkhkarbriharaehngchatipaelsitnmisiththipkkhrxnghlayswnkhxngewstaebngkaelachnwnkasa PLO yngrbrxngsiththikardarngxyukhxngxisraexlaelayxmyutikarkxkarray inpi 1994 mikarlngnamsnthisyyasntiphaphxisraexl cxraedn thaihcxraednepnpraethsxahrbthisxngthifunfukhwamsmphnthkbxisraexl karsnbsnunkhxtklng khxngsatharnafayxahrbldlngcakkardaeninkartngnikhm aelacudtrwckhxngxisraexltx aelakarbnthxnphawathangesrsthkic karsnbsnunkhxtklng khxngsatharnafayxisraexlsnkhlxnemuxxisraexlthukocmtikhatwtaycakpaelsitn ineduxnphvscikayn 1995 khnaxxkcakkarchumnumsntiphaph yaskh rabinthukyiekl aeximr Yigal Amir yiwkhwacdsungkhdkhankhxtklng phayitnaykrthmntriebncamin enthnyahuemuxplaykhristthswrrrs 1990 xisraexlthxnkalngxxkcakhibrxn aelalngnambnthukaemnaway sungihkarkhwbkhummakkhunaekxngkhkarbriharaehngchatipaelsitn sungidrbeluxktngepnnaykrthmntriinpi 1999 thxnkalngxxkcakphakhitkhxngelbanxnaelaecrcakbprathanxngkhkar paelsitn ysesxr xaraft aelaprathanathibdishrth bil khlintn inkarprachumsudyxdkhayedwidpi 2000 rahwangkarprachum barkhesnxaephntngrthpaelsitn rththiesnxmichnwnkasathnghmdaelakwarxyla 90 khxngewstaebngkodymikrungeyrusaelmepnemuxnghlwngrwmkn tangfaytangothsxikfayhnungwaepnsaehtuthaihkarecrcalm hlnghwhnaphrrkhlikhud xaeriyl charxneyuxneninphrawiharxnepnthiotethiyng ekidxintifadakhrngthisxng nkwicarnbangkhnsrupwaxaraftetriymkarkxkarkaeribdngklawlwnghnaenuxngcakkarecrcasntiphaphlmehlw charxnepnnaykrthmntriinkareluxktngphiesspi 2001 rahwangkardarngtaaehnng charxndaeninaephnthxnkalngcakchnwnkasafayediywaelayngepnhwhxkkarkxsrangaenwknewstaebngkkhxngxisraexl yutixintifada insmykhxngekha michawxisraexlthukkha 1 100 khn swnihyinehturaebidkhatwtay swnpaelsitntngaetpi 2000 thung 2 008 mi 4 791 khnthukkalngkhwammnkhngkhxngxisraexlkha 44 khnthukphleruxnxisraexlkha aela 609 khnthukpaelsitndwyknkha ineduxnkrkdakhm 2006 karocmtidwypunihykhxnghisbullxhischumchnchayaedndanthisehnuxkhxngxisraexlaelakarlkphatwthharxisraexlsxngnaykhamchayaedncudchnwnsngkhramelbanxnkhrngthisxngnanhnungeduxn wnthi 6 knyayn 2007 kxngthphxakasxisraexlthalayetaptikrnniwekhliyrinpraethssieriy playpi 2008 xisraexlekidkhwamkhdaeyngxikkhrngemuxkarhyudyingrahwanghamaskbxisraexllm sngkhramkasapi 2008 09 kinewlasamspdahaelayutihlngxisraexlprakashyudyingfayediyw hamasprakashyudyingkhxngtnodymienguxnikhihxisraexlthxnkalngxyangsmburnaelaepidcudphanaedn aemyngmikaryingcrwdaelakarocmtitxbotkhxngxisraexlxyueruxy aetkarhyudyingxnepraabangyngmiphlxyu xisraexlerimptibtikarinkasaemuxwnthi 14 phvscikayn 2012 kinewlaaepdwn ephuxtxbotkarocmtidwycrwdhnungrxykhrngisnkhrphakhitkhxngxisraexltamxang xisraexlerimptibtikarxikkhrnginkasarahwangkarkhyaykhxbekhtkhxngkarocmtidwycrwdkhxnghamasineduxnkrkdakhm 2014 ineduxnknyayn 2010 xisraexlidrbechiyihekharwmoxxisidi praethsxisraexllngnamkhwamtklngkarkhaesrikbshphaphyuorp shrth smakhmkarkhaesriyuorp turki 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rabin bil khlintn aelaysesxr xaraft xisraexlpkkhrxngodyrabxbprachathipityaebbrthspha odymiprathanathibdiepnpramukhsungmacakkareluxktngodysmachiksphakhensesthmiwarakhrngla 7 pi prathanathibdikhnpccubnidaeknay Reuven Rivlin sungkhundarngtaaehnngemux 24 krkdakhm 2014 brihar khnarthmntrimacakkareluxktngmiwarakhrngla 4 pi naykrthmntrikhnpccubnkhux nftali ebnentt nitibyyti smachikspha Knesset sungthahnathisphaphuaethnrasdraelasthabnthangnitibyyti prakxbdwysmachik 120 khn miwarakhrngla 4 pi tulakar swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidkaraebngekhtkarpkkhrxng xisraexl ewstaebngk aela chnwnkasa praethsxisraexlaebngepn 6 ekht emohsxt mehozot exkphcn emhxs mehoz aela 13 ekhtyxy nafxt nafot exkphcn nafa nafa ekht emuxngexk nkhrihysud prachakryiw xahrb rwm hmayehtueyrusaelm 67 32 1083300 1 083 300 anasaerth 43 54 1401300 1 401 300ihfa 68 26 0996300 996 300richxnelsixxn 88 8 2115800 2 115 800ethlxawif 93 2 1388400 1 388 400ebiyrchiba xchdxd 73 20 1244200 1 244 20098 0 0399300 399 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swnxikrxyla 87 xyuinewstaebngk chnwnkasathukxiyiptyudkhrxngtngaetpi 1948 thung 1967 aelaxisraexlyudkhrxngtxmahlngpi 1967 caknninpi 2005 epnswnhnungkhxngaephnpldplxyfayediyw xisraexlthxnphutngthinthanaelakalngthnghmdcakdinaedn xisraexlyngimthuxchnwnkasawaepndinaednyudkhrxngaelaprakaswaepn dinaedntangdaw thsnanithukxngkhkarmnusythrrmrahwangpraethshlayxngkhkaraelaxngkhkrtang khxngshprachachati hlngyuththkarthikasapi 2007 emuxhamasethlingxanacinchnwnkasa xisraexlkhumekhmkarkhwbkhumcudphanaednkasatrngchayaedn echnediywkbthangthaelaelaxakas aelahambukhkhlekhaxxkphunthiykewnkrnithimxngwaepnmnusythrrmepnkrni ip kasamichayaednkbxiyiptaelakhwamtklngkbxisraexl shphaphyuorpaelaxngkhkarbriharpaelsitnkhwbkhumthikhamaednkhwamsmphnthrahwangpraeths mikhwamsmphnththangthut rangbkhwamsmphnththangthut ekhymikhwamsmphnththangthut immikhwamsmphnththangthut ekhymikhwamsmphnththangkarkha immikhwamsmphnththangthutswnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidkxngthphkxngkalngkungthhar 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khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidkarthxngethiyw swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidokhrngsrangphunthanwithyasastr aela ethkhonolyi swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidkhmnakhm aela othrkhmnakhm swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidkarsuksa swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidxtrakarruhnngsux swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidsatharnsukh swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidprachakremuxngihy krungeyrusaelm emuxngthimiprachakrmakthisudinxisraexl micanwnpraman 6 lankhn rxyla 90 xasyxyuinekhtemuxngthithnsmy aetkmibangswnthixasyxyuinekhtemuxngeka swnprachakrxikrxyla 6 xyuinchnbthodyepnsmachikshkrn 2 lksnakhux aela chawxisraexlmihlaychatiphnth thngchawyiw aelachnxahrbphunemuxng rwmthngchawyiwthixphyphmacakyuorp aexfrika exechiy aelapraethstawnxxkklangxun prachakrswnihy xasyxyuinemuxngihy xathi ethlxawif eyrusaelm aelaihfa thiehluxkracdkracaytamphunthikarekstrthwpraethschawxisraexl rxyla 82 nbthuxsasnayuday Judaism thiehluxnbthuxsasnaxislam 14 khrist 2 xayuechliy 79 46 pi chay 77 33 pi hying 81 7 pi xtrakarekhiynxxkxanid rxyla 95 4 sasna swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniid swnihynbthuxsasnayudah 80 1 sasnaxislam 14 6 sasnakhrist 2 1 sasnabaih aelaxun xik 3 2 wthnthrrmxisraexlmiwthnthrrmthngeka aelaihmphsmphsankn klawkhux wthnthrrmobrankhxngyiwthiekaaekkwa 4000 pi aelawthnthrrmihmthiekidcakkarhlngihlkhxngchawyiwcakthwolkthiklbekhaiptngthinthaninxisraexlphayhlngkarkxtngrthxisraexl emuxwnthi 14 phvsphakhm 2491 chawxisraexlrxyla 90 xasyxyuinekhtemuxngthithnsmy aetkmibangswnthixasyxyuinekhtemuxngeka swnprachakrxikrxyla 6 xyuinchnbthodyepnsmachikshkrn 2 lksnakhux khibbuts aelaomchaf wrrnkrrm swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidsthaptykrrm swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidxahar swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniiddntri swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidsuxmwlchn wnhyud swnnirxephimetimkhxmul khunsamarthchwyephimkhxmulswnniidhmayehturthsmachikkhxngshprachachatithiyxmrb idaekxxsetreliy eyrusaelmtawntk rsesiy eyrusaelmtawntk satharnrthechk eyrusaelmtawntk hxndurs kwetmala naxuru aelashrth ineduxnknyayn kh s 2020 miraynganwaesxrebiycayaysthanthutcakethlxawifipthieyrusaelm eyrusaelmepnemuxngthiihythisudkhxngpraethstharwmeyrusaelmtawnxxk sungswnihyyxmrbinthanadinaednthithukkhrxbkhrxng phasaxahrbekhyepnphasathangkarkhxngrthxisraexl in kh s 2018 mikarepliynipepn sthanaphiessinrth prachakraelakhxmulesrsthkicxisraexlkhrxbkhlumthirabsungokln eyrusaelmtawnxxk aelathinthanchawxisraexlinewstaebngk The states that Jerusalem complete and united is the capital of Israel and the city serves as the seat of the government home to the President s residence government offices supreme court and parliament 20 August 1980 14 0 U S abstaining declared the Jerusalem Law null and void and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem see Kellerman 1993 p 140 See for more information xangxing Australia recognises West Jerusalem as Israeli capital BBC News 15 December 2018 subkhnemux 14 August 2020 Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian Israeli settlement www mid ru 6 April 2017 Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel s capital Jerusalem Post 6 December 2017 subkhnemux 6 December 2017 The Czech Republic currently before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967 The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on results of negotiations Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel s capital The Times of Israel 29 August 2019 Guatemala se suma a EEUU y tambien trasladara su embajada en Israel a Jerusalen Guatemala joins US will also move embassy to Jerusalem Infobae phasasepn 24 December 2017 Guatemala s embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s when it was moved to Tel Aviv Nauru recognizes J lem as capital of Israel Israel National News phasaxngkvs 29 August 2019 Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel s Capital and Orders U S Embassy to Move The New York Times 6 December 2017 subkhnemux 6 December 2017 Frot Mathilde 4 September 2020 Kosovo to normalise relations with Israel subkhnemux 4 September 2020 Kosovo and Serbia hand Israel diplomatic boon after US brokered deal The Guardian 4 September 2020 subkhnemux 4 September 2020 The Legal Status of East Jerusalem PDF December 2013 pp 8 29 Arabic in Israel an official language and a cultural bridge Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 18 December 2016 subkhnemux 8 August 2018 Israel Passes National Home Law Drawing Ire of Arabs The New York Times phasaxngkvs 19 July 2018 Lubell Maayan 19 July 2018 Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation state law Reuters Press Releases from the Knesset Knesset website 19 July 2018 The Arabic language has a special status in the state Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law Israel s Independence Day 2019 PDF Report Israel Central Bureau of Statistics 6 May 2019 subkhnemux 7 May 2019 Surface water and surface water change Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OECD subkhnemux 11 October 2020 Home page Israel Central Bureau of Statistics subkhnemux 20 February 2017 Population Census 2008 PDF Report Israel Central Bureau of Statistics 2008 subkhnemux 27 December 2016 OECD 2011 Quarterly Economic and Social Monitor 2021 10 09 thi ewyaebkaemchchin Volume 26 October 2011 p 57 When Israel bid in March 2010 for membership in the Organization for Economic Co operation and Development some members questioned the accuracy of Israeli statistics as the Israeli figures relating to gross domestic product spending and number of the population cover geographical areas that the Organization does not recognize as part of the Israeli territory These areas include East Jerusalem Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights World Economic Outlook April 2022 International Monetary Fund subkhnemux April 20 2022 Income inequality data oecd org OECD subkhnemux 29 June 2020 Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier Human Development and the Anthropocene PDF United Nations Development Programme 15 December 2020 pp 343 346 ISBN 978 92 1 126442 5 subkhnemux 16 December 2020 The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2018 12 25 subkhnemux 5 January 2017 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite web title aemaebb Cite web cite web a rabu accessdate aela access date makkwahnungraykar help rabu archivedate aela archive date makkwahnungraykar help rabu archiveurl aela archive url makkwahnungraykar help Skolnik 2007 pp 132 232 GaWC The World According to GaWC 2008 Globalization and World Cities Research Network subkhnemux 1 March 2009 The Controversial Sovereignty over the City of Jerusalem June 22 2015 The National Catholic Reporter No U S president has ever officially acknowledged Israeli sovereignty over any part of Jerusalem The refusal to recognize Jerusalem as Israeli territory is a near universal policy among Western nations UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zonea or corpus separatum in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10 year period after which there would be referendum to determine its future This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East jerusalem in 1967 To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law Susan M Akram Michael Dumper Michael Lynk Iain Scobbie eds International Law and the Israeli Palestinian Conflict A Rights Based Approach to Middle East Peace Routledge 2010 p 119 Jerusalem Opposition to mooted Trump Israel announcement grows Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem has never been recognised internationally Whither Jerusalem Lapidot page 17 Israeli control in west Jerusalem since 1948 was illegal and most states have not recognized its sovereignty there Finkelstein Israel Silberman Neil Asher 2001 The Bible unearthed archaeology s new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its stories 1st Touchstone ed New York Simon amp Schuster ISBN 978 0 684 86912 4 The Pitcher Is Broken Memorial Essays for Gosta W Ahlstrom Steven W Holloway Lowell K Handy Continuum 1 May 1995 Quote For Israel the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III mid ninth century and for Judah a Tiglath pileser III text mentioning Jeho Ahaz of Judah IIR67 K 3751 dated 734 733 are the earliest published to date Broshi Maguen 2001 Bread Wine Walls and Scrolls Bloomsbury Publishing p 174 ISBN 978 1 84127 201 6 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 30 October 2014 subkhnemux 30 October 2014 Jon L Berquist 2007 Approaching Yehud New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period Society of Biblical Lit pp 195 ISBN 978 1 58983 145 2 Peter Fibiger Bang Walter Scheidel 31 January 2013 The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean OUP USA pp 184 187 ISBN 978 0 19 518831 8 Abraham Malamat 1976 A History of the Jewish People Harvard University Press pp 223 239 ISBN 978 0 674 39731 6 Yohanan Aharoni 15 September 2006 The Jewish People An Illustrated History A amp C Black pp 99 ISBN 978 0 8264 1886 9 Erwin Fahlbusch Geoffrey William Bromiley 2005 The Encyclopedia of Christianity Wm B Eerdmans Publishing pp 15 ISBN 978 0 8028 2416 5 United Nations 29 November 1947 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2017 10 10 subkhnemux 21 March 2017 Morris 2008 p 66 at 1946 The League demanded independence for Palestine as a unitary state with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews p 67 at 1947 The League s Political Committee met in Sofar Lebanon on 16 19 September and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition which it called aggression without mercy The League promised them in line with Bludan assistance in manpower money and equipment should the United Nations endorse partition p 72 at December 1947 The League vowed in very general language to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine Morris 2008 p 75 The night of 29 30 November passed in the Yishuv s settlements in noisy public rejoicing Most had sat glued to their radio sets broadcasting live from Flushing Meadow A collective cry of joy went up when the two thirds mark was achieved a state had been sanctioned by the international community Morris 2008 p 396 The immediate trigger of the 1948 War was the November 1947 UN partition resolution The Zionist movement except for its fringes accepted the proposal The Arab war aim in both stages of the hostilities was at a minimum to abort the emergence of a Jewish state or to destroy it at inception The Arab states hoped to accomplish this by conquering all or large parts of the territory allotted to the Jews by the United Nations And some Arab leaders spoke of driving the Jews into the sea and ridding Palestine of the Zionist plague The struggle as the Arabs saw it was about the fate of Palestine the Land of Israel all of it not over this or that part of the country But in public official Arab spokesmen often said that the aim of the May 1948 invasion was to save Palestine or save the Palestinians definitions more agreeable to Western ears Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 14 May 1948 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 17 March 2017 subkhnemux 21 March 2017 Gilbert 2005 p 1 Debate Map Israel Israel Occupied Territories doi 10 1093 law epil 9780199231690 law 9780199231690 e1301 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Cuyckens Hanne 1 October 2016 Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza Netherlands International Law Review 63 3 275 295 doi 10 1007 s40802 016 0070 1 odythang link springer com The status of Jerusalem PDF The Question of Palestine amp the United Nations United Nations Department of Public Information East Jerusalem has been considered by both the General Assembly and the Security Council as part of the occupied Palestinian territory a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite book title aemaebb Cite book cite book a CS1 maint postscript lingk Analysis Kadima s big plans BBC News 29 March 2006 subkhnemux 10 October 2010 Kessner BC 2 April 2006 Israel s Hard Learned Lessons Homeland Security Today subkhnemux 26 April 2012 Kumaraswamy P R 5 June 2002 The Legacy of Undefined Borders Tel Aviv Notes subkhnemux 25 March 2013 Freedom in the World Freedom House 2008 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2012 06 23 subkhnemux 20 March 2012 Global Survey 2006 Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom 19 December 2005 Retrieved 20 March 2012 Israel s accession to the OECD Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development Retrieved 12 August 2012 Israel and the IMF IMF phasaxngkvs Human development indices United Nations Development Programme Retrieved 4 November 2010 WHO Life expectancy in Israel among highest in the world Haaretz 24 May 2009 Gil Moshe 1997 A History of Palestine 634 1099 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 59984 9 Allan D Cooper 2009 The geography of genocide University Press of America p 132 ISBN 978 0 7618 4097 8 subkhnemux 1 January 2012 Carmel Alex The History of Haifa Under Turkish Rule Haifa Pardes 2002 ISBN 965 7171 05 9 pp 16 17 Moshe Gil 1992 A History of Palestine 634 1099 Cambridge University Press p 829 ISBN 9780521404372 subkhnemux 17 May 2015 Haifa was taken in August 1100 or June 1101 according to Muslim sources which contradict one another Albert of Aachen does not mention the date in a clear manner either From what he says it appears that it was mainly the Jewish inhabitants of the city who defended the fortress of Haifa In his rather strange Latin style he mentions that there was a Jewish population in Haifa and that they fought bravely within the walls of the city He explains that the Jews there were protected people of the Muslims the Fatimids They fought side by side with units of the Fatimid army striking back at Tancred s army from above the walls of the citadel Judaei civis comixtis Sarracenorum turmis until the Crusaders overcame them and they were forced to abandon the walls The Muslims and the Jews then managed to escape from the fortress with their lives while the rest of the population fled the city en masse Whoever remained was slaughtered and huge quantities of spoils were taken Note 3 Albert of Aachen Albericus Albertus Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitanae Expeditionis in Occ IV p 523 etc Irven M Resnick 1 June 2012 Marks of Distinctions Christian Perceptions of Jews in the High Middle Ages CUA Press pp 48 49 ISBN 978 0 8132 1969 1 citizens of the Jewish race who lived in the city by the favour and consent of the king of Egypt in return for payment of tribute got on the walls bearing arms and put up a very stubborn defence until the Christians weighed down by various blows over the period of two weeks absolutely despaired and held back their hands from any attack the Jewish citizens mixed with Saracen troops at once fought back manfully and counter attacked Albert of Aachen Historia Ierosolimitana 7 23 ed and transl Susan B Edgington Oxford Clarendon Press 2007 516 and 521 Abraham P Bloch 1987 Sultan Saladin Opens Jerusalem to Jews One a day an anthology of Jewish historical anniversaries for every day of the year p 277 ISBN 978 0 88125 108 1 subkhnemux 26 December 2011 Benzion Dinur 1974 From Bar Kochba s Revolt to the Turkish Conquest in David Ben Gurion b k The Jews in their Land Aldus Books p 217 subkhnemux 26 December 2011 Geoffrey Hindley 28 February 2007 Saladin hero of Islam Pen amp Sword Military p xiii ISBN 978 1 84415 499 9 subkhnemux 26 December 2011 Alex Carmel Peter Schafer Yossi Ben Artzi 1990 The Jewish settlement in Palestine 634 1881 L Reichert p 31 ISBN 978 3 88226 479 1 subkhnemux 21 December 2011 Samson ben Abraham of Sens Jewish Encyclopedia Moshe Lichtman September 2006 Eretz Yisrael in the Parshah The Centrality of the Land of Israel in the Torah Devora Publishing p 302 ISBN 978 1 932687 70 5 subkhnemux 23 December 2011 Kramer Gudrun 2008 A History of Palestine From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel Princeton University Press p 376 ISBN 978 0 691 11897 0 M Sharon 2010 Al Khalil Encyclopedia of Islam Second Edition Koninklijke Brill NV International Dictionary of Historic Places Middle East and Africa by Trudy Ring Robert M Salkin Sharon La Boda pp 336 339 The Covenant of the League of Nations Article 22 subkhnemux 18 October 2012 Mandate for Palestine Encyclopaedia Judaica Vol 11 p 862 Keter Publishing House Jerusalem 1972 Rosenzweig 1997 p 1 Geoffrey Wigoder G G Return to Zion The New Encyclopedia of Judaism via Answers Com The Jerusalem Publishing House subkhnemux 8 March 2010 Haaretz khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 18 April 2010 subkhnemux 9 March 2010 Gilbert 2005 p 2 Jews sought a new homeland here after their expulsions from Spain 1492 Eisen Yosef 2004 Miraculous journey a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present Targum Press p 700 ISBN 1 56871 323 1 Morgenstern Arie 2006 Hastening redemption Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel USA Oxford University Press p 304 ISBN 978 0 19 530578 4 Jewish Virtual Library khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2017 01 18 subkhnemux 29 March 2010 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help rabu archivedate aela archive date makkwahnungraykar help rabu archiveurl aela archive url makkwahnungraykar help Barnai Jacob 1992 The Jews in Palestine in the Eighteenth Century Under the Patronage of the Istanbul committee of Officials for Palestine University Alabama Press p 320 ISBN 978 0 8173 0572 7 Immigration to Israel Jewish Virtual Library subkhnemux 29 March 2012 The source provides information on the First Second Third Fourth and Fifth Aliyot in their respective articles The White Paper leading to Aliyah Bet is discussed Aliyah During World War II and its Aftermath Kornberg 1993 How did Theodor Herzl an assimilated German nationalist in the 1880s suddenly in the 1890s become the founder of Zionism Herzl 1946 p 11 The Jewish Agency for Israel1 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2018 12 10 subkhnemux 21 September 2015 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite web title aemaebb Cite web cite web a rabu archivedate aela archive date makkwahnungraykar help rabu archiveurl aela archive url makkwahnungraykar help Stein 2003 p 88 As with the First Aliyah most Second Aliyah migrants were non Zionist orthodox Jews Romano 2003 p 30 Macintyre Donald 26 May 2005 The birth of modern Israel A scrap of paper that changed history The Independent subkhnemux 20 March 2012 1987 The Making of the Modern Near East 1792 1923 Harlow England Longman p 290 ISBN 0 582 49380 3 Schechtman Joseph B 2007 Jewish Legion Encyclopaedia Judaica Vol 11 Detroit Macmillan Reference USA p 304 subkhnemux 6 August 2014 Scharfstein 1996 p 269 During the First and Second Aliyot there were many Arab attacks against Jewish settlements In 1920 was disbanded and The Defense was established Modern History Sourcebook Fordham University 24 July 1922 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2011 08 04 subkhnemux 27 August 2007 Shaw J V W January 1991 1946 Chapter VI Population Vol Volume I Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo American Committee of Inquiry Reprint ed Washington D C Institute for Palestine Studies p 148 ISBN 978 0 88728 213 3 OCLC 22345421 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2014 07 19 subkhnemux 2018 05 17 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite book title aemaebb Cite book cite book a volume has extra text help British Government 1937 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 23 September 2013 subkhnemux 14 July 2013 Walter Laqueur 1 July 2009 A History of Zionism From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group ISBN 9780307530851 subkhnemux 15 October 2015 Hughes M 2009 PDF English Historical Review CXXIV 507 314 354 doi 10 1093 ehr cep002 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedim PDF emux 21 kumphaphnth 2016 1987 From Haven to Conquest Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem Until 1948 Institute for Palestine Studies ISBN 978 0 88728 155 6 The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948 MidEastWeb subkhnemux 19 March 2012 Fraser 2004 p 27 Encyclopedia of Terrorism Harvey W Kushner Sage 2003 p 181 The British Empire in the Middle East 1945 1951 Arab Nationalism the United States and Postwar Imperialism William Roger Louis Oxford University Press 1986 p 430 By Blood and Fire G P Puttnam s Sons New York 1981 Bethell Nicholas 1979 The Palestine Triangle Andre Deutsch General Assembly resolution United Nations 15 phvsphakhm 1947 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 6 August 2012 subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Special Committee on Palestine United Nations 3 knyayn 1947 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 10 June 2012 subkhnemux 12 August 2012 United Nations 20 April 1949 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 3 January 2011 subkhnemux 31 July 2007 Bregman 2002 pp 40 41 Gelber Yoav 2006 Palestine 1948 Brighton Sussex Academic Press p 17 ISBN 978 1 902210 67 4 Morris 2008 p 77 78 Tal David 2003 War in Palestine 1948 Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy Routledge p 471 ISBN 978 0 7146 5275 7 Morris 2008 Clifford Clark Counsel to the President A Memoir 1991 p 20 Jacobs Frank 7 August 2012 The Elephant in the Map Room Borderlines The New York Times subkhnemux 3 September 2012 Karsh Efraim 2002 The Arab Israeli conflict The Palestine War 1948 Osprey Publishing p 50 ISBN 978 1 84176 372 9 Ben Sasson 1985 p 1058 Morris 2008 p 205 Rabinovich Itamar Reinharz Jehuda 2007 Israel in the Middle East Documents and Readings on Society Politics and Foreign Relations Pre 1948 to the Present Brandeis p 74 ISBN 978 0 87451 962 4 David Tal 24 June 2004 War in Palestine 1948 Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy Routledge p 469 ISBN 978 1 135 77513 1 some of the Arab armies invaded Palestine in order to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state Transjordan Morris 2008 p 187 A week before the armies marched Azzam told Kirkbride It does not matter how many Jews there are We will sweep them into the sea Ahmed Shukeiry one of Haj Amin al Husseini s aides and later the founding chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization simply described the aim as the elimination of the Jewish state al Quwwatli told his people Our army has entered we shall win and we shall eradicate Zionism Morris 2008 p 198 the Jews felt that the Arabs aimed to reenact the Holocaust and that they faced certain personal and collective slaughter should they lose Un org 9 knyayn 2002 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 7 January 2014 subkhnemux 13 October 2013 Karsh Efraim 2002 The Arab Israeli conflict The Palestine War 1948 Osprey Publishing ISBN 978 1 84176 372 9 The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited Cambridge University Press p 602 ISBN 978 0 521 00967 6 Dr Sarah Ozacky Lazar Relations between Jews and Arabs during Israel s first decade in Hebrew The United Nations 11 May 1949 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 12 September 2007 subkhnemux 13 July 2007 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help William Roger Louis 1984 The British Empire in the Middle East 1945 1951 Arab Nationalism the United States and Postwar Imperialism Clarendon Press p 579 ISBN 978 0 19 822960 5 The transcript makes it clear that British policy acted as a brake on Jordan King Abdullah was personally anxious to come to agreement with Israel Kirkbride stated and in fact it was our restraining influence which had so far prevented him from doing so Knox Helm confirmed that the Israelis hoped to have a settlement with Jordan and that they now genuinely wished to live peacefully within their frontiers if only for economic reasons Lustick 1988 pp 37 39 Israel Labor Zionism Country Studies Library of Congress subkhnemux 12 February 2010 The Kibbutz amp Moshav History amp Overview Jewish Virtual Library Jewish Virtual Library subkhnemux 17 June 2014 Segev Tom 1949 The First Israelis The First Million Trans Arlen N Weinstein New York The Free Press 1986 Print p 105 107 Shulewitz Malka Hillel 2001 The Forgotten Millions The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands Continuum ISBN 978 0 8264 4764 7 Laskier Michael Egyptian Jewry under the Nasser Regime 1956 70 pages 573 619 from Middle Eastern Studies Volume 31 Issue 3 July 1995 page 579 Population by Religion Israel Central Bureau of Statistics 2016 subkhnemux 4 September 2016 Bard Mitchell 2003 The Founding of the State of Israel Greenhaven Press p 15 Hakohen Devorah 2003 Immigrants in Turmoil Mass Immigration to Israel and Its Repercussions in the 1950s and After Syracuse University Press ISBN 978 0 8156 2969 6 for ma abarot population see p 269 Clive Jones Emma Murphy Israel Challenges to Identity Democracy and the State 2002 p 37 Housing units earmarked for the Oriental Jews were often reallocated to European Jewish immigrants Consigning Oriental Jews to the privations of ma aborot transit camps for longer periods Segev 2007 pp 155 157 Shindler 2002 pp 49 50 Kameel B Nasr 1 December 1996 Arab and Israeli Terrorism The Causes and Effects of Political Violence 1936 1993 McFarland pp 40 ISBN 978 0 7864 3105 2 Fedayeen to attack almost always against civilians Gilbert 2005 p 58 Isaac Alteras 1993 Eisenhower and Israel U S Israeli Relations 1953 1960 University Press of Florida pp 192 ISBN 978 0 8130 1205 6 the removal of the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran at the entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba The blockade closed Israel s sea lane to East Africa and the Far East hindering the development of Israel s southern port of Eilat and its hinterland the Nege Another important objective of the Israeli war plan was the elimination of the terrorist bases in the Gaza Strip from which daily fedayeen incursions into Israel made life unbearable for its southern population And last but not least the concentration of the Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula armed with the newly acquired weapons from the Soviet bloc prepared for an attack on Israel Here Ben Gurion believed was a time bomb that had to be defused before it was too late Reaching the Suez Canal did not figure at all in Israel s war objectives Dominic Joseph Caraccilo January 2011 Beyond Guns and Steel A War Termination Strategy ABC CLIO pp 113 ISBN 978 0 313 39149 1 The escalation continued with the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran and Nasser s nationalization of the Suez Canal in July 1956 On October 14 Nasser made clear his intent I am not solely fighting against Israel itself My task is to deliver the Arab world from destruction through Israel s intrigue which has its roots abroad Our hatred is very strong There is no sense in talking about peace with Israel There is not even the smallest place for negotiations Less than two weeks later on October 25 Egypt signed a tripartite agreement with Syria and Jordan placing Nasser in command of all three armies The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping combined with the increased fedayeen attacks and the bellicosity of recent Arab statements prompted Israel with the backing of Britain and France to attack Egypt on October 29 1956 Alan Dowty 20 June 2005 Israel Palestine Polity pp 102 ISBN 978 0 7456 3202 5 Gamal Abdel Nasser who declared in one speech that Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine There will be no peace on Israel s border because we demand vengeance and vengeance is Israel s death The level of violence against Israelis soldiers and civilians alike seemed to be rising inexorably The Jewish Virtual Library The Sinai Suez Campaign Background amp Overview In 1955 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser began to import arms from the Soviet Bloc to build his arsenal for the confrontation with Israel In the short term however he employed a new tactic to prosecute Egypt s war with Israel He announced it on August 31 1955 Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine There will be no peace on Israel s border because we demand vengeance and vengeance is Israel s death These heroes were Arab terrorists or fedayeen trained and equipped by Egyptian Intelligence to engage in hostile action on the border and infiltrate Israel to commit acts of sabotage and murder Schoenherr Steven 15 December 2005 The Suez Crisis subkhnemux 31 May 2013 Gorst Anthony Johnman Lewis 1997 The Suez Crisis Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 11449 3 Benny Morris 25 May 2011 Righteous Victims A History of the Zionist Arab Conflict 1881 1998 Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group pp 300 301 ISBN 978 0 307 78805 4 p 300 In exchange for Israeli withdrawal the United states had indirectly promised to guarantee Israel s right of passage through the straits to the Red sea and its right to self defense if the Egyptian closed them p 301 The 1956 war resulted in a significant reduction of Israeli border tension Egypt refrained from reactivating the Fedaeen and Egypt and Jordan made great effort to curb infiltration National insurance institute of Israel Hostile Action Casualties phasahibru list of people who were kiled in hostile action 53 In 1956 19 in 1957 15 in 1958 jewish virtual library Terrorism Against Israel Number of Fatalities 53 at 1956 19 at 1957 15 at 1958 Jewish virtual library MYTH Israel s military strike in 1956 was unprovoked Israeli Ambassador to the UN Abba Eban explained As a result of these actions of Egyptian hostility within Israel 364 Israelis were wounded and 101 killed In 1956 alone as a result of this aspect of Egyptian aggression 28 Israelis were killed and 127 wounded Adolf Eichmann Jewish Virtual Library subkhnemux 18 September 2007 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Cole 2003 p 27 Shlomo Shpiro 2006 No place to hide Intelligence and civil liberties in Israel Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19 44 629 648 doi 10 1080 09557570601003361 The Politics of Miscalculation in the Middle East by Richard B Parker 1993 Indiana University Press pp 38 Maoz Moshe 1995 Syria and Israel From War to Peacemaking USA Oxford University Press p 70 ISBN 978 0 19 828018 7 On This Day 5 Jun BBC 5 June 1967 subkhnemux 26 December 2011 Segev 2007 p 178 Gat Moshe 2003 Britain and the Conflict in the Middle East 1964 1967 The Coming of the Six Day War Greenwood Publishing Group p 202 ISBN 0275975142 The Six Day War and Israeli Self Defense Questioning the Legal Basis for Preventive War Cambridge University Press 2013 p 32 Samir A Mutawi 18 July 2002 Jordan in the 1967 War Cambridge University Press p 93 ISBN 978 0 521 52858 0 Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians his response to this development was a model of moderation His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping The next day Nasser announced to an astonished world that henceforth the Straits were indeed closed to all Israeli ships Segev 2007 p 289 Smith 2006 p 126 Nasser the Egyptian president decided to mass troops in the Sinai casus belli by Israel Bennet James 13 March 2005 The Interregnum The New York Times Magazine subkhnemux 11 February 2010 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Palestinian National Covenant July 1968 Mfa gov il subkhnemux 13 March 2009 Silke Andrew 2004 Research on Terrorism Trends Achievements and Failures Routledge p 149 256 pages ISBN 978 0 7146 8273 0 subkhnemux 8 March 2010 Gilbert Martin 2002 The Routledge Atlas of the Arab Israeli Conflict The Complete History of the Struggle and the Efforts to Resolve It Routledge p 82 ISBN 978 0 415 28116 4 subkhnemux 8 March 2010 27 January 2008 George Habash Palestinian Terrorism Tactician Dies at 82 The New York Times subkhnemux 29 March 2012 1973 Arab states attack Israeli forces On This Day The BBC 6 October 1973 subkhnemux 15 July 2007 Agranat Commission Knesset 2008 subkhnemux 8 April 2010 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Bregman 2002 pp 169 170 In hindsight we can say that 1977 was a turning point Bregman 2002 pp 171 174 Bregman 2002 pp 186 187 Bregman 2002 pp 186 Cleveland William L 1999 A history of the modern Middle East Westview Press p 356 ISBN 978 0 8133 3489 9 Lustick Ian 1997 Middle East Policy Washington D C Wiley Blackwell V 1 34 45 doi 10 1111 j 1475 4967 1997 tb00247 x ISSN 1061 1924 OCLC 4651987544 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedim PDF emux 2009 11 20 subkhnemux 1 June 2013 See for example UN General Assembly resolution 63 30 passed 163 for 6 against 23 mkrakhm 2009 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 3 January 2011 Golan Heights profile BBC News 27 November 2015 subkhnemux 6 January 2017 Friedberg Rachel M November 2001 The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market PDF The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116 4 1373 1408 doi 10 1162 003355301753265606 Bregman 2002 p 199 Stone amp Zenner 1994 p 246 Toward the end of 1991 were the result of internal Palestinian terror Haberman Clyde 9 December 1991 After 4 Years Intifada Still Smolders The New York Times subkhnemux 28 March 2008 Mowlana Gerbner amp Schiller 1992 p 111 Bregman 2002 p 236 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 27 August 2013 subkhnemux 20 March 2012 U S Department of State khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 22 January 2010 subkhnemux 30 March 2010 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Israel PLO Recognition Exchange of Letters between PM Rabin and Chairman Arafat Sept 9 1993 Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs subkhnemux 31 March 2010 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Harkavy amp Neuman 2001 p 270 Even though Jordan in 1994 became the second country after Egypt to sign a peace treaty with Israel Settlements information khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 26 August 2013 subkhnemux 20 March 2012 Kurtzer Daniel Lasensky Scott 2008 Negotiating Arab Israeli peace American leadership in the Middle East United States Institute of Peace Press p 44 ISBN 978 1 60127 030 6 Cleveland William L 1999 A history of the modern Middle East Westview Press p 494 ISBN 978 0 8133 3489 9 Israel marks Rabin assassination BBC News 12 November 2005 Bregman 2002 p 257 23 October 1998 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 24 December 1999 subkhnemux 30 March 2010 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite journal title aemaebb Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal txngkar journal help Gelvin 2005 p 240 Gross Tom 16 January 2014 The Jewish Chronicle khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2016 03 04 subkhnemux 22 April 2016 Hong Nicole 23 February 2015 Jury Finds Palestinian Authority PLO Liable for Terrorist Attacks in Israel a Decade Ago The Wall Street Journal subkhnemux 22 April 2016 Ain Stewart 20 December 2000 The Jewish Week khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 13 October 2007 Samuels David 1 September 2005 In a Ruined Country The Atlantic subkhnemux 27 March 2013 USA Today 29 July 2004 khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 20 October 2012 subkhnemux 1 October 2012 Harel Amos Issacharoff Avi 1 October 2010 Years of rage Haaretz subkhnemux 12 August 2012 King Laura 28 September 2004 Losing Faith in the Intifada Los Angeles Times subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Diehl Jackson 27 September 2004 From Jenin To Fallujah The Washington Post subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Amidror Yaakov PDF Strategic Perspectives Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedim PDF emux 2012 08 11 subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Pipes Daniel 14 September 2008 Must Counterinsurgency Wars Fail The Washington Times subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Frisch Hillel 12 mkrakhm 2009 Perspectives Papers on Current Affairs Begin Sadat Center for Strategic Studies khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 14 June 2012 subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Buchris Ofek 9 March 2006 The Defensive Shield Operation as a Turning Point in Israel s National Security Strategy Strategy Research Project United States Army War College subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Krauthammer Charles 18 June 2004 Israel s Intifada Victory The Washington Post subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Plocker Sever 22 June 2008 2nd Intifada forgotten Ynetnews subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Ya alon Moshe January 2007 PDF Policy Focus Washington Institute for Near East Policy khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedim PDF emux 2012 08 11 subkhnemux 12 August 2012 a href wiki E0 B9 81 E0 B8 A1 E0 B9 88 E0 B9 81 E0 B8 9A E0 B8 9A Cite web title aemaebb Cite web cite web a rabu archivedate aela archive date makkwahnungraykar help rabu archiveurl aela archive url makkwahnungraykar help Hendel Yoaz 20 September 2010 Letting the IDF win Ynetnews subkhnemux 12 August 2012 Zvi Shtauber Yiftah Shapir 2006 The Middle East strategic balance 2004 2005 Sussex Academic Press p 7 ISBN 978 1 84519 108 5 subkhnemux 12 February 2012 The Psychology of Strategic Terrorism Public and Government Responses to Attack Shepherd Ben p 172 Fatalities before Operation Cast Lead B Tselem subkhnemux 14 January 2017 Security Council Calls for End to Hostilities between Hizbollah Israel Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1701 2006 11 August 2006 Escalation of hostilities in Lebanon and in Israel since Hizbollah s attack on Israel on 12 July 2006 Harel Amos 13 July 2006 Hezbollah kills 8 soldiers kidnaps two in offensive on northern border Haaretz subkhnemux 20 March 2012 Koutsoukis Jason 5 January 2009 Battleground Gaza Israeli ground forces invade the strip Sydney Morning Herald subkhnemux 5 January 2009 Ravid Barak 18 January 2009 IDF begins Gaza troop withdrawal hours after ending 3 week offensive Haaretz subkhnemux 20 March 2012 Azoulay Yuval 1 January 2009 Two IDF soldiers civilian lightly hurt as Gaza mortars hit Negev Haaretz subkhnemux 20 March 2012 Stephanie Nebehay 20 November 2012 Reuters khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2015 09 24 subkhnemux 20 November 2012 al Mughrabi Nidal 24 November 2012 Reuters khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 2013 01 10 subkhnemux 8 February 2013 Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari The Jerusalem Post subkhnemux 14 November 2012 Lappin Yaakov Lazaroff Tovah 12 November 2012 Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets The Jerusalem Post subkhnemux 27 March 2013 Israel and Hamas Trade Attacks as Tension Rises The New York Times 8 July 2014 IL Tamas khlngkhxmulekaekbcakaehlngedimemux 3 tulakhm 2011 subkhnemux 8 knyayn 2011 Israel signs free trade agreement with Mercosur Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 19 December 2007 subkhnemux 15 October 2012 Localities and Population by Population Group District Sub District and Natural Region Israel Central Bureau of Statistics 6 September 2017 subkhnemux 19 September 2017 Population of Jerusalem by Age Religion and Geographical Spreading 2015 PDF Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies subkhnemux 19 September 2017 brrnanukrmAbadi Jacob 2004 Israel s Quest for Recognition and Acceptance in Asia Garrison State Diplomacy Routledge ISBN 978 0 7146 5576 5 Bowden Julie 2004 The Original Story God Israel and the World Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company ISBN 978 0 8028 2900 9 Ben Sasson Hayim 1985 A History of the Jewish People Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 39731 6 2002 A History of Israel Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978 0 333 67631 8 Broughton Simon Ellingham Mark Trillo Richard 1999 World Music The Rough Guide Rough Guides ISBN 978 1 85828 635 8 Cole Tim 2003 Holocaust City The Making of a Jewish Ghetto Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 92968 4 Fraser T G 2004 The Arab Israeli Conflict Palgrave Macmillan Limited ISBN 978 1 4039 1338 8 subkhnemux 12 May 2013 2005 The Israel Palestine Conflict One Hundred Years of War Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 85289 0 Gilbert Martin 2005 The Routledge Atlas Of The Arab Israeli conflict 8th ed Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 35900 9 Goldreich Yair 2003 The Climate of Israel Observation Research and Application Springer ISBN 978 0 306 47445 3 Harkavy Robert E Neuman Stephanie G 2001 Warfare and the Third World Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978 0 312 24012 7 Henderson Robert D A 2003 Brassey s International Intelligence Yearbook 2003 ed Brassey s Inc ISBN 978 1 57488 550 7 1946 The Jewish State American Zionist Emergency Council ISBN 978 0 486 25849 2 Jacobs Daniel 1998 Israel and the Palestinian Territories The Rough Guide 2nd revised ed Rough Guides ISBN 978 1 85828 248 0 Kellerman Aharon 1993 Society and Settlement Jewish Land of Israel in the Twentieth Century State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0 7914 1295 4 Kornberg Jacques 1993 Theodor Herzl From Assimilation to Zionism Indiana University Press ISBN 978 0 253 33203 5 Lustick Ian 1988 For the Land and the Lord Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel Council on Foreign Relations Press ISBN 978 0 87609 036 7 Mazie Steven 2006 Israel s Higher Law Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State Lexington Books ISBN 978 0 7391 1485 8 McNutt Paula M 1999 Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel Westminster John Knox ISBN 978 0 664 22265 9 Miller Robert D 2012 First published 2005 Chieftains of the Highland Clans ISBN 978 1 62032 208 6 Morcol Goktug 2006 Handbook of Decision Making CRC Press ISBN 978 1 57444 548 0 2008 1948 A History of the First Arab Israeli War Yale University Press
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